What causes misfiring? It’s never good when you feel hesitation or shaking as your car is running. So you will want to know to get it fixed not only because it's bothersome and uncomfortable to have your car doing that but also because it could mean further damage to other car components if you are not able to get it diagnosed and repaired immediately.
There are symptoms you will be able to observe when an engine misfires and there many possible causes why an engine could misfire. It could be a sensor or a bunch of other causes. The list of the potential cause could go on and on so answering that question isn’t always easy. So it’s best to let a professional figure it out but to at least give some idea let us discuss what happens during an engine misfire, what are its symptoms, and what are the possible reasons.
What Causes Misfiring: What an Engine Misfire Is
An engine misfire has something to do with the car’s combustion process. In a 4-stroke engine, finely tuned processes occur for the engine to be able to function properly. The process starts when an engine piston moves downward allowing the cylinder to fill up with a combination of fuel and air coming from the engine’s intake manifold.
A carburetor or a fuel injection system may be used to produce the mixture. The ratio of this mixture can be influenced by additional components such as turbos and superchargers. The piston then rises again, compressing the air/fuel mixture until the pressure is highly combustible.
The pressurized air/fuel mixture in the cylinder is ignited by the engine's spark plug in the third stage of the process. As a result, the piston is pulled downward once more. This time, as the piston descends, it rotates the crankshaft of the engine. The crankshaft rotation will eventually shift to your car's transmission and cause it to travel forward or backward.
When the piston goes back up in the “4-stroke” process, it completes the process. This time, the upward movement is pouring all of the burned air/fuel mixture into the exhaust manifold of your engine and out the tailpipe. When any of the chemistry during one or more of these steps becomes off then a misfire happens.
Like for instance, too much fuel or too little enters the cylinder compared to air then a misfire can occur. Also if the piston rings failed to seal then it could also result in some of the mixture leaking out causing a misfire.
What Causes Misfiring: Common Symptoms
Now that we have an understanding of what an engine misfire is you may now be able to start diagnosing the problem. Here are some of the symptoms that will tell you an engine misfire might already be happening:
- Check Engine Light
What better way to know than have your own vehicle’s warning system tell you there is a problem. The check engine light is your car's first line of protection when it comes to problems. What causes misfiring will also cause the check engine light to come on.
A computer or electronic control module is used in almost every modern car. A signal is sent to this control module if one of your vehicle's systems begins to malfunction. The computer then evaluates the severity of the problem, and if it determines that it requires proper care, the check engine light on your instrument cluster will illuminate.
Remember that most auto parts stores will get the trouble code from your car's computer as well. Furthermore, they almost never charge you for it. So if the check engine light is on, you must really check those engines.
- Idle Roughly
Even if your check engine light comes on, you won't always be able to tell if there's a problem. A rough idle, on the other hand, is a symptom you'll possibly recognize. Your air/fuel combination can be thrown off if your engine misfires. When you're sitting still, this causes the engine to “sag” or “lurch” unevenly.
- Slow Acceleration
Take note that a misfire will impact the air/fuel mixture in your engine. When the mixture is off, it sends erroneous information to a variety of other components. The set of O2 sensors in your exhaust is one of those components.
Because of the bad air/fuel combination, your car's control module will reduce acceleration if those O2 sensors read inaccurate information. In cars with turbochargers, this symptom can be even more noticeable. Your engine won't get nearly as much air or boost, and the “pickup” you're used to won't be there.
- Rough Acceleration
Sometimes what causes misfiring can result in rough acceleration. A misfire will cause your vehicle to accelerate roughly, in addition to slower acceleration. A misfire will cause your car to jerk and surge while moving forward when your engine hits higher RPMs when accelerating. This is one of the most common misfire symptoms.
- Engine Sound is Not the Same
What causes misfiring can also cause engine sound to alter. This symptom might be a bit more difficult to detect if you’re not a gearhead most especially with the fact that different engines also produce different sounds.
A 4-cylinder engine, for example, would sound different than a 6- or 8-cylinder engine. A misfire can cause one or more of your engine's cylinders to go completely dead, turning your V8 into a V7. The loss of a cylinder can generate a different engine note to a trained ear, and it can be a sign of a serious misfire.
This may also be linked to the symptom of slow acceleration. Even if you lose a cylinder in a V8, your engine will still be able to produce 87 percent of its power. A failure of a cylinder in a four-cylinder engine, on the other hand, reduces power to 75%. As a result, if a misfire results in a dead cylinder, it would be much easier to detect in a 4-cylinder engine than in a V8.
To ensure that your engine is “balanced” within your engine bay, carmakers go through a lot of trouble. The balance is thrown off when one or more of the cylinders misfire. When you're idling or accelerating, you may notice that your car vibrates more.
Also if you're parking, you might be able to see your engine “twisting” toward one side or the other as it idles if you open your hood. These are symptoms of an engine misfire.
What Causes Misfiring: Common Reasons
- Air and fuel delivery problems
A misfire can be caused by something that throws off the air/fuel mixture, from a faulty fuel injector to a vacuum leak. Inside the pump, air and fuel combine, and the spark plug ignites the mixture. The explosion starts the engine, which produces the rotational force necessary to propel your vehicle down the road.
- Emissions equipment problems
Modern automobiles are equipped with a variety of emissions controls that help to reduce the amount of pollution emitted into the atmosphere. The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system are two examples. Issues with emissions equipment often cause the engine's air/fuel mixture to change enough to cause a misfire.
- Issues with the Ignition system
The majority of people equate misfire with worn-out spark plugs. They are unaware that spark plugs are just one aspect of the ignition system. The control module, crankshaft location sensor, coil packs, wiring, and, of course, the spark plugs are all included in a typical modern ignition system and problems with any of these parts can cause an engine to misfire.
- Issues with the Mechanics of the Engine
Many people are also unaware that a misfire may be caused by a technical issue with the engine. Each cylinder in the engine has a piston that must compress the air/fuel mixture in order for combustion to take place. To achieve sufficient compression, the cylinder must remain fully sealed while the piston is moving upward. Internal engine issues may cause the cylinder to fail to seal properly, resulting in compression loss and an engine misfire.
- Sensor and module problems
Many of the sensors in contemporary vehicles are used by the PCM to assess control of critical functions like fuel delivery and spark timing. As a result, sensor issues can easily lead to an engine misfire. A misfire may also be caused by a problem with the PCM, though this is an uncommon occurrence.
- Issues with control circuit
Electrical circuits attach all of the input and output engine management devices (sensors, ignition coil packs, and so on) where they are required. An engine misfire may be caused by issues with these circuits, such as faulty wiring or a loose link.
What Causes Misfiring: What to do
- Gather as much details as possible before taking your car to the shop to help your mechanic diagnose the problem.
- Pay careful attention to how your engine is running when driving. Take notice of the circumstances surrounding a misfire, such as whether the engine is cold or warm, the speed at which it happens (low or high), the frequency at which it occurs, and whether it occurs only while accelerating or at a consistent rate.
- Visually inspect the engine area of your vehicle.
- Check around after the vehicle has cooled down to see if something appears to be wrong, such as apparent loose or disconnected wires, broken parts, fluid leakage, or anything else that seems to be out of place.
- Now that you have all the information you can now take the issue to your trusted mechanic who will be able to have your vehicle running smoothly in no time.
Related Questions To What Causes Misfiring
Is It Safe to Continue Driving with an Engine Misfire?
You should not drive if your engine is misfiring. Even if the car runs well enough to get you where you need to go, you risk damaging expensive components like the catalytic converter and the engine. That's why you should get a misfire diagnosed and repaired as soon as possible.
How much does it cost to fix an engine misfire?
Since what causes misfiring varies, the cost for the repair also varies. So here are the most common causes with its related costs.
For carbon or oil-fouled spark plugs the cost for the fix can be $100 up to $300 and that depends on the cost of plugs and the cost of labor to replace. (Keep in mind that oil or carbon-fouled plugs are the product of a deeper engine problem, and diagnosing and fixing such a problem can take more time and resources).
For bad spark-plug wires the cost can be from $100 to $300, again depending on cost of the parts and labor cost.
Vacuum leak will be fixed for $100 to $1000 depending on the cause of the issue.
When it comes to bad fuel delivery the cost could range from $100 up to $1000 depending on the type of problem, like whether or not the issue is on bad injectors, new injector driver, cracked intake plenum, or flash programming of ECM (Engine Control Module) that is needed.
If the engine misfire is caused by a mechanical breakdown like broken valve spring, burnt valve, broken or burned piston or piston ring or blown cylinder head gasket repairs can cost from $500 to, unfortunately, five figures depending on the powertrain.
When an engine misfire occurs the efficiency or performance of the vehicle suffers, as well as its fuel economy, idle quality and emission to mention a few. If a misfiring engine is subjected to an emission test the abnormally high levels of hydrocarbons (HC) in the exhaust will surely result in a failed emission test.
And once you detect the symptoms mentioned above and unravel what causes misfiring of your engine take it to a reliable mechanic immediately before other car components also become damaged, costing you more expensive repairs and other bigger issues. A misfire will usually start as just a nuisance but if the causes aren’t detected and corrected, then expect for your engine to eventually fail to start or stop altogether when you least expect it.