There are two common types of gear mechanisms: the rack and pinion system and the traditional mechanism.
It is essential to understand these two gears before deciding what would suit your project more. The following article highlights the pros and cons of rack and pinion systems over traditional mechanisms.
What is a rack and pinion system and how does it work?
The rack and pinion system is a simple linear actuator made up of a cylindrical shaft that features teeth at one end. It also consists of the rack bar, the drive disk, and the pinion gear.
It operates mainly by rolling pins instead of sliding them in most cases. This is because the teeth on the rack bar and the pinion gear mesh together to transfer rotational movement. The rolling pins on the rack bar move inside the disk slots, which is what powers rotation on both sides of it.
The first known rack and pinion system usage dates back to ancient China, where waterwheels were fitted with such gears as early as 200 BC.
here is the list of 10 vehicles brands that uses a rack and pinion steering system:
Yes! Lamborghini does use this system, and it's been utilized in all of its flagship models. In addition, this system provided a unique touch to all Lamborghini cars.
Porsche is another brand that uses a rack and pinion system for its steering mechanism. Its system is a double wishbone-based design installed in the front axle.
#3: Chevrolet Corvette C6
The C6 Corvette also utilizes this system in its steering. Unlike Lamborghini, however, the rack and pinion system with gear-driven steering is installed at the back of the car.
#4: Dodge Viper
The Viper's rack and pinion system are quite similar to the one used by Corvette. Chevrolet and Dodge share their designs for this system. It has been in use since 1990, and it has proved effective even in extreme conditions such as heavy rainfall, snow, and mud.
#5: Suzuki Hayabusa
the Suzuki Hayabusa also uses the rack and pinion steering system to power its front wheels. Its design is an upgrade from that of other cars using this mechanism since it only allows direct input (i..e feedback).
#6: GMC Denali HD Truck
GMC Denali HD Truck is another vehicle brand that utilizes racks and pins for its drivetrain. It's a heavy-duty truck which is perfect for industries that require powerful machines.
#7: Ford F-150 Raptor
Ford uses this system in its off-road vehicle, the Ford F-150 Raptor. The system they use has three joints per link to provide better stability and workability on any ground. With this feature, you can easily maneuver through even the toughest terrain without worrying about getting stuck or lost.
#8: Ford Explorer SUV
Ford Explorer is another vehicle that uses a rack and pinion system. This mechanism makes the car lighter and improves its maneuverability through turns.
#9: BMW 7-Series
BMW has been using this system for quite some time now, beginning with the E32 series of cars in 1989. Although luxury brands mainly use it, even common cars like Ford F150 are now starting to use racks and pins.
#10: Audi R8
Audi has finally decided to use the Rack & Pinion Steering System instead of traditional steering found on most vehicles like Toyota or Honda Civic. In addition, it's equipped with an active physical rear differential lock which adds to its overall performance.
What is the traditional gear mechanism, and how does it work?
Since ancient times, the traditional mechanism has been used mainly in windmills or watermills. It features two gears that mesh together, of which one is attached to a rotating axle and the other to a fixed axle.
The teeth on each gear are cut to the same shape but differ in size. The larger gear corresponds with, the smaller pinion, known as an involute gear profile.
here is the list of 10 vehicles brands that use the traditional gear steering system:
Toyota makes use of a traditional gear mechanism in its steering system. This is the main reason why most of their cars have less feedback upon taking a turn.
#2: Honda Civic
Honda also does it this way, but its system had undergone major changes since the 80's when it used to be problematic and very slow in adjusting. It now works well with faster cars like the Accord due to its quick-lock capabilities.
#3: Fiat Topolino/500
Fiat Topolino/500 is another car that initially employed a traditional steering mechanism before switching to racks & pinions for better performance. They are also known to have started using power-assisted steering systems, which didn't become popular until decades later in America.
#4: Smart Fortwo Coupé Cabrio
Smart Fortwo Coupé Cabrio is another car that uses a traditional steering system. Although it might not be as powerful as that of other brands, it still works well with the car's lightweight design.
#5: Volkswagen Beetle
This German-made vehicle is powered by an engine using a traditional gear mechanism. The power produced by this engine is transmitted to the wheels via a manual transmission, making it able to switch gears without having to use hydraulics or electronic assistance.
#6: Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution IX MR FQ-400
Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution IX MR FQ-400 also uses a traditional gear mechanism in its steering system. However, like most cars that have adopted racks and pins, the company has built three joints per link for better stability and maneuverability.
#7: Nissan 370Z
Nissan 370Z is another car that uses a traditional gear mechanism in its steering system. Although it features a one-piece rack, this system has proven reliable even against other racks & pinions with a two-piece design.
#8: Honda NSX Type S Zero
Honda NSX Type S Zero, although being prioritized as a race car over practicality, still uses the traditional gear mechanism. It's made lightweight for improved performance and better maneuverability like most cars that feature racks and pins. However, this also means that just no one can use it; you'll need specific skills to handle it.
#9: Subaru BRZ
Subaru BRZ is a car that uses a traditional gear mechanism in its steering system. This is because it was made with comfort and affordability in mind, which also means that you can't expect the same performance level from cars mentioned above.
#10: Audi R8
Audi R8 also makes use of a traditional steering mechanism. The company has been using this since 1998. Unfortunately, there were multiple complaints concerning its reliability at first and concerns about its weight being spread across three joints. Still, Audi has managed to solve these problems in its recent models.
What are the pros and cons of the rack and pinion system?
The rack and pinion system has a few drawbacks since it is simple. However, here are a few pros and cons of this mechanism:
1. Precise control
the first and most important advantage of this mechanism is the precise control it offers. It allows for linear movement, making it suitable for creating cams and actuators.
2. High mechanical advantage
the rack and pinion system also gives a high mechanical advantage since it can multiply torque to create an even higher force. This can be used on numerous projects requiring a small input force but producing large output forces like traction drive systems, opening car bonnets, or powering swing doors.
3. Large range of movement
this gear has a wide tooth pitch; therefore, its teeth are strong enough to handle heavy loads at high speeds (up to 15000rpm). The rack bar comprises individual blocks that make up the complete rack. These blocks are meshed with the pinion gear teeth to create a smooth operation.
1. Quick wear and tear
the rack bar tends to wear out quickly compared to other systems that use cams or levers. The sudden movement of the rolling pins inside their slots will cause excessive friction – which is why the rack nuts must be kept lubricated at all times.
2. Unsuitability for high speed
this mechanism cannot turn at high speeds since its parts are not fastened tightly against one another, unlike gears in most other gearchange mechanisms where gears mesh together without loose tolerances. If this type of system spins too quickly, it can make noise, produce heat, the damage itself, or even break parts.
3. Need for lubrication
the rack bar must be lubricated at all times since the inner workings are open to dust, dirt, and other contaminants that can wear away its teeth prematurely. Also, the whole mechanism takes in outside contamination which makes proper maintenance essential for longer gear life.
What are the pros and cons of the traditional gear mechanism?
The traditional mechanism offers several benefits over other types of gears; however, it also has a few drawbacks:
1. Consistent performance
this type of system is very reliable because there's no slipping or sliding involved like with systems that use cams or levers – so you will not experience any loss in torque throughout its range of movement.
2. High accuracy
the gears in this mechanism mesh together without any loss in accuracy, so the teeth will always mesh correctly for smooth operation. This translates to greater efficiency when used on systems with great speed and power requirements like traction drive systems, opening car bonnets, or powering swing doors.
this type of gear can be used in any application that requires simple rotational movement since it has fewer components than most other gearchange mechanisms that feature cams and levers. This also makes it very easy to maintain and fix if something goes wrong with it – replace the parts that are worn out or broken using nuts, bolts, washers, etc.
1. Not capable of creating precise linear motion,
the traditional mechanism cannot create linear motion because the teeth are not designed to mesh together. This makes it unsuitable for use with systems that require precise movements or cams and actuators.
2. Heavy wear and tear over time
this type of gear experiences heavy wear and tear when used, especially if not lubricated properly (which is highly recommended in rack and pinion systems). The friction between its meshing parts can cause heating, ultimately breaking its parts prematurely.
3. Not versatile enough to work with all applications
while this type of gear works well with most gearchange mechanisms, it doesn't function as well on systems that require high speeds and precision, like traction drive systems, opening car bonnets, or powering swing doors.
4. High speed
this type of gear can operate at high speeds since cams or levers do not hinder it. This makes it suitable for use on systems with high power requirements like motors, sports cars with huge engines, tractors towing trailers in the farmlands, etc.
Which one is best for you?
It all depends on what you need to get done. If you need to open a car bonnet, the traditional mechanism isn't the best choice because it's not capable of moving fast enough – it takes too long for its teeth to mesh together and make it work. This type of system is better suited for creating linear motion like powering swing doors and different machinery and gearchange systems.
If you're looking for a faster option that can open the car bonnet quickly, then go with the rack and pinion system since it's geared towards high speeds and power requirements. However, this kind of system has drawbacks; if not lubricated regularly, it tends to wear out quickly over time – so remember to keep your rack nuts well-oiled and clean.
The traditional rack and pinion system is best suited for applications that require high speed, accuracy, and durability – like opening the bonnet of a sports car or towing trailers on a farm using a tractor. It can also be used in gearchange mechanisms which require accurate meshing together of gears. However, it should never be used if precise linear motion is needed because it cannot create such movement without cams or levers at work.
In an application where precision is key, choose a traditional gear mechanism over the rack and pinion system since it's designed for this kind of operation from the ground up. However, when you need something that can operate at higher speeds with high power requirements, go with the rack and pinion system because it's geared towards these kinds of work.
However, be mindful that the rack and pinion system experiences wear and tear over time, especially if it's not given the proper care (i.e., oiling its nuts) – this is normal with all gears and may shorten its life, making it unsuitable for applications like motorsports if it cannot last the long hours of intense racing use.